英语语法冲入门掉入坑day03

名词

花式加s

  • 专有名词、普通名词
  • 可数名词、不可数名词
  • 具体名词、抽象名词

专有名词

专有名词(大多数为不可数名词,在某些情况下可以复数使用,或转换为普通名词,单/复数使用)

人名、地名、国家、组织、单位、大型活动、著名事件等(首字母大写、若果缩写全部字母大写)

人名: Jack
地名: Beijing
国家: China
组织: CBA
单位: Department of Education
大型活动: Midi Festival
署名事件: Discovery of America

普通名词:专有名词以为的名词

有些情况下专有名词可复数使用(在一个范围内能被数清),也可转换成普通名词(加不定冠词变成普通名词)

There are two Jacks in our class (我们班有两个杰克)

Millions off Lei Fengs have emerged in China (中国出现了数百万的活雷锋)

Hey,Tom,have a Mrs. Carl is waiting for you (嘿,汤姆,有一位卡尔夫人正在等你)

可数名词、不可数名词

  • 可数名词(单数复数都可以,可以加数词计算的)

    appleeggboytreefamilyclasspoliceteam

  • 不可数名词(只能单数,不可以加数词计算)

    waterfiretimehopeknowledgeintelligence

具体名词、抽象名词

  • 具体名词(看得见摸得着,可数不可数都有)

    manBeijingbookcarwaterfire

  • 抽象名词(无形的各种事物,大多数是不可数)

    timehopeknowledgeloveanger

使用

  • 可数名词计数
  • 可数名词加不定冠词 (a/an) 和数词 (one、two等)
  • 可数名词可以加定冠词 (the)

  • 不可数名词不能计数

  • 不可数名词不能加不定冠词 (a/an) 和数词 (one、two)
  • 不可数名词可以加定冠词 (the)

名词单复数变化

规则变化

  • 大多数名词,直接加s
    day ==> days

  • osxchsh结尾的加es
    hero ==> heroes

  • 辅音+y,变yies
    city ==> cities

  • 元音 + y,加s
    boy ==> boys

  • ffe结尾,变fves 或直接加s
    half ==> halbes ; roof ==> roofs

  • ch结尾发/k/,直接加s
    stomach ==> stomachs

  • 辅音 + oo结尾加s
    bamboo ==> bamboos

  • 辅音 + o,加es
    echo ==> echoes

  • volcanomangobanjogrottohaloarchipelagoess都可以

不规则变化

常见:
man ==> men
woman ==> women
goose ==> geese
foot ==> feet
tooth ==> teeth
child ==> children
mouse ==> mice
fish ==> fish
sheep ==> sheep
deer ==> deer

一直是复数的

scissors (剪刀)
tweezers (镊子)
glasses (眼镜)
congratulations (祝贺)
clothes (衣服)
trousers (裤子)
amends (赔偿)
shenanigans (恶作剧)
cahoots (同伙)
smithereens (碎片)

复合名词 (两名词合在一起)

  • 不可数名词结尾,无复数形式
    homeworknwespapergreenhouse

  • manwoman做前缀,前后都变复数
    man actor ==> men actors

  • 两个名词,后面变复数
    boy friend ==> boy fiends

  • 可数名词 + 介词(短语) ,前面名词复数
    sister in law ==> sisters in law

  • 动词/过去分词 + 副词,加s
    stand by ==> stand bys

名词所有格

's所有格,中英 语序一样

  • 单数名词/复数名词非s结尾,后加's,单数名词s结尾,后加's
    Jack’s (杰克的)
    The boss’s car (老板的车)

  • 复数名词s结尾,后加'
    Boys' (男孩的)

  • and连接并列名词时

    • 表示各自所有关系,分别加's
    • 共同所有关系,只在最后一个名词加's
      Tom’s and Jack’ rooms (汤姆的房间和杰克的房间)
      Tom and Jack’s room (汤姆和杰克的房间)
  • 其他常见用法

    • 日程时间后
      3 day' holiday (3天的假期)

    • 国家城市后
      Beijing's policy (北京的政策)

    • 地方机构后
      The airport's service guide' (机场的服务指南)

    • 各种单位后
      100 kilogram's weight (100千克的重量)

    • 天体后
      The Jupiter's aura (木星的光环)

of所有格,中英 语序相反

修饰前面的名词,表两个名词间的所属关系
The content of the book = The book's content (这本书的内容)

s+of双重所有格

  • of + 名词's所有格
    This is a photo of my cat's (这是我猫的照片)

  • of + 名词性物主代词
    He is a friend of mine (他是我的朋友)

名词主谓一致

主谓一致:主语的单复数和谓语的单复数保持一致

I(单) am(单) student. (我是学生)

They(复) are(复) students (他们是学生)

  • 国家、机构、书名等专有名词的复数形式看作整体,谓语用单数

    The United States was founded in 1775 (美国建立与1776年)

    "Three Kingdoms" is a good story (三国演义是一个好故事)

  • many a ...more than one + 名词做主语,谓语用单数

    Many a man is smoking (很多男人在吸烟)

    More than one man is smoking (不止一个男人在吸烟)

  • one and a half + 复数名词做主语,谓语用单数

    One and a half watermelons is in the fridge (冰箱里有一个半西瓜)

  • 时间、钱、距离、等各种单位看做整体,谓语用单数

    Two dollars is no big deal (两美元没什么大不了)

    Four miles isnot along way (四英里的路不远)

  • 加减乘除运算中,谓语用单数

    Five times five is twenty-five (5乘5是25)

    one plus one is two (1加1是2)

  • eachoneno onesome(any,no,every) + body(one,thing) 作主语或作限定词(限定在一个范围内了),谓语用单数

    Each student is in the classroom (每个学生都在教室里)

    someone student is in the classroom (某个学生在教室里)

  • one + of + 复数名词结构中,谓语用单数

    One of the students in our school is from the United States (我们学校有一名来自美国的学生)

  • 含有集体概念的名词,根据上下问判断,整体概念谓语用单数,个体概念谓语用复数

    The fmaily was in a poor way(这是一个家庭生活)

    The family goes to the movies together (这家人一起去看电影(个体概念,这一家的人))

  • 连词相关

    • andboth...and... 连接两个单数名词做主语,代表复数的概念,大多数情况谓语用复数

    He and him families are at the funeral (他和他的家人在参加葬礼)

    Bath China ad the United States are big countries (中国和美国都是大国)

    • adn 连接两个单数词,指同一人同一物或同一概念,两个名词共用一个冠词,谓语动词用单数

    The YouTuber and traveler is he friend (这位旅行家兼YouTube视频博主是他的朋友)

    • and 连接两个单数词,主语前有 everyeachnomany a 修饰时,谓语用单数

    Each day and night is busy (每天都从早忙到晚)

  • 不定冠词a/an + 单数名词 + or two做主语,谓语用单数

    An apple or two is not enough (一两个苹果是不够的)

  • one or two + 复数名词做主语,谓语用复数

    One or two apples are not enough (一两个苹果是不够的)

  • some ofplenty ofa lot oflots ofmost ofthe rest ofall ofhalf ofpart of、分数/百分百 + of + 名词短语,作主语;谓语动词与of后的名词,保持单复数一致

    Most of the student was gone (大多数学生都走了)

    Most of the students were gone (大多数学生都走了)

  • fewmanyseveralallsome后加名词做主语,谓语用复数

    The few words are difficult (这几句话好难)

  • 就近原则 (距离谓语近的名词,决定谓语单复数)

    • There be/Here be

    There is one computer and two phones (那有一台电脑和两台手机)

    There are two computers and one phone (那有两台电脑和一台手机)

    Here is one apple and two bananas (那有一个苹果和两个香蕉)

    Here are two apples and one banana (那有两个苹果和一个香蕉)

    • or、either…or…(二选一)、neither…nor…(两个都不选,选另外一个)、not only…but…(also)(不经而且,两者都)连接并列作主语

    His friends or he was dead (他的朋友们或者他已经死了)

    He or his friends were dead (他或者他的朋友们已经死了)

    Either my brothers or mother is goning to the garden (我弟弟或者妈妈要去花园)

    Either mother or my brothers are going to the garden (妈妈或者我弟弟要去花园)

    Neither two apples nor one banana is vegetable (两苹果和一个香蕉都不是蔬菜)

    Neither one apple nor two bananas are vegetables (一个苹果和两个香蕉都不是蔬菜)

    Not only my friends but also my girlfriend was wrong (不仅是我朋友,我女朋友也错了)

    Not only my girlfriend but also my friends were wrong (不仅是我女朋友,我朋友也错了)

    • 四除(butexceptbesidesin addition to) 五和 (withalong withtogether withcombined withas well as) 包括(including) 而不是(rather thaninstead of)

    Peter,but his roommates,is friendly. (皮特人很好,除了他室友)

    Peter,except his roommates,is friendly. (皮特人很好,除了他室友)

    Peter,besides his roommates.is friendly. (皮特人很好,除了他室友)

    Peter,in addition to his roommates,is friendly. (皮特人很好,除了他室友)

    Peter,with his roommates,is friendly. (皮特和他室友都很好)

    Peter,along with his roommates,is friendly. (皮特和他室友都很好)

    Peter,together with his roommates,is friendly. (皮特和他室友都很好)

    Peter,combined with his roommates,is friendly. (皮特和他室友都很好)

    Peter,as well as his roommates,is friendly. (皮特和他室友都很好)

    Peter,including his roommates,is friendly. (皮特人很好,包括他室友也很好)

    Peter,rather than his roommates,is friendly. (皮特人很好而不是他室友)

    Peter,instead of his roommatesmis friendly. (皮特人很好而不是他室友)

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